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La predisposición de la línea germinal al sarcoma de Ewing pediátrico se caracteriza por variantes patogénicas hereditarias en los genes de reparación del daño del ADN.

More knowledge is needed regarding germline predisposition to Ewing sarcoma to inform biological investigation and clinical practice. Aquí, we evaluated the enrichment of pathogenic germline variants in Ewing sarcoma relative to other pediatric sarcoma subtypes, as well as patterns of inheritance of these variants. We carried out European-focused and pan-ancestry case-control analyses to screen for enrichment of pathogenic germline variants in 141 established cancer predisposition genes in 1,147 individuals with pediatric sarcoma diagnoses (226 sarcoma de ewing, 438 osteosarcoma, 180 rhabdomyosarcoma, y 303 other sarcoma) relative to identically processed cancer-free control individuals. Findings in Ewing sarcoma were validated with an additional cohort of 430 individuals, and a subset of 301 Ewing sarcoma parent-proband trios was analyzed for inheritance patterns of identified pathogenic variants. A distinct pattern of pathogenic germline variants was seen in Ewing sarcoma relative to other sarcoma subtypes. FANCC was the only gene with an enrichment signal for heterozygous pathogenic variants in the European Ewing sarcoma discovery cohort (three individuals, OR 12.6, 95% CI 3.0-43.2, p = 0.003, FDR = 0.40). This enrichment in FANCC heterozygous pathogenic variants was again observed in the European Ewing sarcoma validation cohort (three individuals, OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.7-23.6, p = 0.014), representing a broader importance of genes involved in DNA damage repair, which were also nominally enriched in individuals with Ewing sarcoma. Pathogenic variants in DNA damage repair genes were acquired through autosomal inheritance. Our study provides new insight into germline risk factors contributing to Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis.

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